Technology Sheets

What is a Digital Twin?

The first idea of Twin appeared at NASA with its Apollo program. At that time, it was a real copy of the module where it was possible to reproduce the problems encountered in space by the module and find a way to solve them from the earth. Grieves introduced the transformation into a Digital Twin in 2003 as mentioned in “Digital Twin: Manufacturing Excellence through Virtual Factory Replication”. NASA and the US Air Force then started to apply the Digital Twin in the aeronautic domain.

Rough milling with the Vortex method reduces machining time

With high-speed rough milling, correct programming can prevent exceeding the limit value of the radial cutting width and breaking the tool. In curves and transitions, however, the cutting width can temporarily increase, while this is not what is needed.

Creating functionalities with laser texturing

Femtosecond lasers are ultra-fast pulsed lasers, which are used to remove material. The material is not heated, but immediately turns into a plasma. In addition, the technology is extremely suited for the very precise application of functionalities via textures.

What a mobile cobot can do in production

Our consortium partner, Sirris, was given the opportunity to make temporary use of a KMR iiwa with the aim to extensively test and explore the potential of a mobile cobot.

Cryogenic machining, also for soft(er) materials

Cryogenic cooling during machining stands for machining at very low temperatures. This has advantages both for tools made of heat-resistant materials, where the heat can be high during machining, and for the machining of softer materials, which will flow more easily during machining.

Choose the right endmill to optimise your milling process

Solid carbide endmills are the most commonly used tools in almost every machine shop. Process engineers are always concerned with productivity gains by reducing the tooling cost, machining time and bring down the cost per part to increase the margins. The selection of the machining conditions either rely on the experience of the operator or the recommendations from the tool manufacturer.

Cryogenic cooling: an overview

Almost 10 years after the introduction of cryogenic machining, a lot of research has been conducted on this technology, its application and pros and cons. However, despite the positive results, the step to the industry does not seem to be so obvious.

Environmental impact of cryogenic machining

Sometimes the question arises to what extent cryogenic cooling is environmentally-friendly, as the gases used are a consumable, unlike other refrigerants that can be reused. Cryogenic processing does have interesting environmental advantages.

Feature Recognition techsheet

The change in the market forces machining companies to update product design, complexity, quality, durability and delivery times. This is made possible by the development of computer technology. During the development of a 3D model in CAD (Computer Aided Design), data can be adjusted quickly.

Machining electrically conductive ceramics with spark erosion (EDM)

Because of their extreme hardness, ceramic materials and their composites are very popular for mechanical applications that are susceptible to wear and tear due to heavy loads. The other side of the coin is that conventional techniques do not usually suffice to work these materials. Some are even impossible to grind, because oxides deposit on the grinding wheel.

Digitise your company - ERP all the way to the shop floor

In these times of Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) we may think that a Manufacturing Execution System (MES) or an IIoT backbone has become an absolute requirement to digitally connect the office (the ERP) with the shop floor. In this first of two articles we look at whether this is always the case.

AR meets Industry

When you hear AR, for sure you are thinking about the heavy, chunky, massively overpriced Hololens and how you tried to somehow see something with the small field of view. We don’t even have to talk about the hard time you had trying to tap on virtual objects in the air.


Digital Twin Applications in Manufacturing


Developments and advancements in digital technologies have challenged traditional manufacturing and become the basis of what is known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0.

Evaluation of machining calculation solutions

If some machining simulation software already exists, it should be tested extensively to determine whether it can be adapted for use in the industrial context. Machining is a complex process involving a large number of parameters. It therefore requires a lot of testing. In this context, the company Third Wave Systems has provided Cetim with two software packages, each with different functionalities. Production Module is a piece of software designed to cut cycle time and reduce forces on the tool. It demonstrated that it was possible, for various materials and machining operations, to save time and lower the forces exerted on the tool. Advantedge is dedicated to simulating machining. This software was subject to an analysis of turning of TA6V under a range of different conditions. The results revealed some promising tendencies, which it would be helpful to analyse in greater detail, with the aim of improving performance.

Standards monitoring: an asset for the professional section of industrial mechanics

To be heard on the international level, better do it together. Such is the meaning of all the standardization efforts led by Cetim with all its professional mechanical commissions. Let us recall that Cetim ensures more than 50% of the budget of the mechanical standardization union (MSU) {Union de Normalisation de la Mécanique (UNM)}. Its experts hold 210 seats in the national and international standardization committees.

Collaborative Robotics

Industrial automation and robotics are nothing new within manufacturing. However, a new paradigm is emerging which blends manual and robotic activities. Where traditional automation solutions have been isolated from human workforce for safety reasons, new sensorised and aware robotic systems – or collaborative robotic systems (Cobotics) - are now becoming common place.

Carbide inserts Wear Failure modes.

Tool wear describes the gradual failure of cutting tools due to regular operation. It is a term often associated with tools used for example on turning, milling, drilling and other types of machining operations where chips are made. We could also say “We started with a new cutting edge and at the beginning of the operation everything was working well.

Why we can machine graphite with Diamond tools.

Graphite has specific properties that make machining a challenge. It’s strong, but also brittle, and is susceptible to chipping if not handled properly. Cutting Graphite (or carbon) is different from cutting Metals. Metal exerts plastic deformation when a tool edge cuts it producing a curl or chips.

Machining CFRP/GFRP Composite material.

The unrelenting passion of the aerospace industry to enhance the performance of commercial and military aircraft is constantly driving the development of improved high-performance structural materials. Composite materials are one such class of materials that play a significant role in current and future aerospace components. Composite materials are particularly attractive to aviation and aerospace applications because of their exceptional strength and stiffness-to-density ratios and superior physical properties. A composite material typically consists of relatively strong, stiff fibers in a tough resin matrix.

Impact Hammer Test (TAP Testing)

Tap testing, also known as modal testing, is an experimental method that is used to excite the machine-tool system in order to extract its harmonic information such as natural frequencies, modal masses, modal damping ratios and mode shapes.  This is normally done in static conditions, using the impact hammer as the excitation mechanism, and an accelerometer as the sensor.  In theory, the tool t

Real-Time Production Scheduling in Job-Shops

Small and medium machining shops are often arranged as job-shops. In a job-shop the production is usually done in small batches, and the machines are arranged in functional units, or cells (milling cell, drilling cell, etc). Each part or product to manufacture needs to follow a sequence of operations (a route) to be performed in different machines.

CAD, CAM and Verification

Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) software has been developed since the late 1950s and is an essential component of modern manufacturing. The term CAD covers a range of applications from 2D drafting packages to full 3D design packages with simulation and analysis tools.

Model based definition

Model Based Definition is a new strategy of product lifecycle management in which the CAD models (Computer aided design) change from simple models with only the geometric data to extensive information sources containing all product manufacturing information (Alemanni, Destefanis, & Vezzetti, 2010).

Turning with Wiper inserts.

The first wiper geometries were first introduced by Sandvik Coromant in 1997.The wiper technology for turning is based on a carefully developed series of radii that make up the cutting edge. On a conventional insert, the nose of the edge is just one radius. The wiper edge, however, is made up of a large, main radius complemented by several smaller radii.

VR Training

How does it work?

By use of a head mounted display and a set of controllers, the user is placed in a virtual environment where they can practice, learn and improve their skills. The user will enter a scenario in which they have to perform a set of tasks to reach a goal. The scenario depends on the type of training.

AR Instructing

Hard turning with PCBN cutting material is defined as the process of single point cutting of part pieces that have hardness values over 45HRC. CBN is mainly used to turn parts in the region of 58-68HRC.

Milling with Ceramics

The use of ceramic cutting tools is on the rise, that news is less dramatic than it seems, because solid ceramic end mills and inserts are usually easier to use than carbide tools. Changing to using ceramic cutting tools doesn’t need really any special process changes. Contrary to what people might think about ceramic tooling.


POLCA stands for Paired-cell Overlap Loops of Cards with Authorization. POLCA is a production steering and control system for high mix/low volume and custom made products environments aimed at keeping the lead time at the shop floor short. Setting up a planning and execution system is not easy in an environment where customer-specific products with complex routings are processed. POLCA, if properly set up, controls the shop floor in these difficult environments particularly well. A POLCA system shares similarities with a kanban system. However, a kanban system is more suited for environments with repetitive products.

Additive manufacturing vs conventional machining process for complex geometry parts

Conventional machining process like milling, drilling, rolling, forming and so on, are still the most common go-to manufacturing operations for medium to large volume production. Additive manufacturing (AM) has been disrupting the manufacturing environment in the past decade with new possibilities for customised small volume production. Optimised manufacturing, for example, is very difficult to achieve with conventional machining processes, whereas with the help of additive manufacturing, this is easy with relatively fewer tooling changes, and much less time involved with the manufacturing operation.

3-2-1 Rule of Work Piece Clamping

Over the past years, manufacturing has made considerable progress. New machine tools, high-performance cutting tools, and modern manufacturing processes enable today's industries to make workpiece faster and better than ever before. Although work holding methods have also advanced considerably, the basic principles of clamping and locating are still the same.

Abrasive water jet turning: for rough working hard materials that are difficult to machine

Abrasive water jet turning is a reducing technology that uses a high pressure water jet with granules - read: ‘abrasive’ - particles. How does it actually work? Water and particles are mixed together to become a high pressure water jet in the spray nozzle. Next the combined translatory movement of the water jet and the rotating movement of the work piece ensure that cylindrical shapes can be processed.

Low surface roughness and extremely high precision thanks to ELID grinding

Grinding through electrolytic in-process dressing (or ‘ELID’ for short) is an efficient technique for processing extremely hard and brittle materials such as ceramics (ZrO2, Si3N4), cermets and hardened steel. This grinding technique allows metal-bound grinding discs to be used, which are after all highly durable and difficult to adjust compared with discs with resins or glass. Moreover, ELID grinding allows a work piece with good geometrical accuracy in combination with a highly smooth surface to be obtained, making a polishing stage redundant.

A new method for finishing 3D Near Net Shape components

‘Near Net Shape’ components (NNS) are products that are almost in their final or finished form, and just need some finishing work in order to come within the required specifications, such as dimensional precision and surface roughness. Removal technologies are still the most common processes used for making the final finish that leads to the functional product. Therefore tool path generation for controlling CNC machines is essential.

Epicycloidal milling is up to 20 % faster than trochoidal milling

Among the different working strategies for ‘high performance cutting’ (HPC), trochoidal milling is an efficient way of processing (difficult materials), and is one that also utilizes a longer cutting edge. In order to increase productivity even further, (i.e. reducing the cycle times) the materials and processes laboratory at University of Karlsruhe has developed another strategy for trochoidal cutting, namely epicycloidal cutting.

Predictive Maintenance

End-to-end digitisation of physical assets within a value chain and their integration into a digital ecosystem is the focus of the fourth industrial revolution [1]. Ubiquitous sensors and microprocessors installed on machines, embedded systems and smart devices along with the increasing horizontal and vertical networking of value chains will result in unprecedently seen amounts of data.

Sensory Tool Holder

A sensory tool holder is an inline tooling adapter that is capable of measuring three different dynamic responses within the tool – these being the bending moment, the tension and the torsion. With applications to both milling and turning operations, a sensory tool holder can continually collect data during a given operation and wirelessly transmits this data to a nearby laptop.

Robot significantly reduces production time of large moulds

The arrival of machine hammer peening opens the way to fast finishing of large milled injection and deep drawing moulds. Instead of manual polishing, an industrial robot does the work in a shorter time. This process also offers a number of other advantages.

Method to transfer colour images to metal with a laser

Three photonic laser techniques to transfer colour images with high resolution to metal surfaces: oxidation of metal and interferences, formation of nanoparticles and plasmon resonance, structuring of a periodic circuit and diffraction of light.