Technology Sheets

Introduction to Machine Learning

You may have heard the terms machine learning and AI being used interchangeably, but what are they exactly? Machine learning is broadly speaking the use of statistics to make predictions, while AI is more concerned with behaviour (e.g. playing games (like AlphaGO), visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages).

Operational Improvements through Simulation

Simulation is the next best thing to observing a real system in operation since it allows to study the situation even though we are unable to experiment directly with the real system” [1]

Choosing CAM software: attention points

As a machining company, are you considering investing in a new CAM system? Then you'll certainly want to consider the following points of interest!  CAM (computer-aided manufacturing), like CAD (computer-aided design), is done via customised software packages. There are some relevant aspects to consider when buying a new CAM system.


Is it possible to polish to a mirror finish using a cobot?

Good polishing experts are hard to find and that is not about to change. The work requires knowledge and experience, is time-consuming, expensive, monotonous and stressful, and takes place in an unhealthy environment. The need for experts is especially acute in the mould construction business.

Semantic Understanding of Collaborative Robotic Workspaces

The emerging Industry 4.0 paradigm facilitates intelligent factories where machines, robots and human workers work side by side. Collaboration between these entities in a factory environment allows having higher throughput with the ability to perform complex processes which needs multiple skills from robots as well as humans.

Technological watch: Materials used in the field of tooling - Non-alloy and alloy tool steels

The choice of steel grade depends on a number of practical application factors, such as toughness (resistance to crack initiation and propagation), hardness (resistance of the material to penetration), thermal fatigue resistance (resistance to the effects of successive heating and cooling which can generate cracks), which can be translated into the simple application questions

Cutting fluid filtration

The commission of the machine tools manufacturers had commissioned Cetim to carry out an instruction file around the problems of filtration and follow-up of machining machines.

A study on filtration was decided, with two working phases including the research of information and the preparation of the test phase, object of this synthesis.

Co-Manipulation of long parts using a collaborative mobile manipulator

Robots are often part of cells where high precision tasks may be performed, such as assembly, welding, pick and place that are often complex and repetitive. Being an integral part of the Industry 4.0 new paradigm, collaborative robots have started to be integrated in smart manufacturing eco-systems.

Standards monitoring: an asset for the professional section of industrial mechanics

To be heard on the international level, better do it together. Such is the meaning of all the standardization efforts led by Cetim with all its professional mechanical commissions. Let us recall that Cetim ensures more than 50% of the budget of the mechanical standardization union (MSU) {Union de Normalisation de la Mécanique (UNM)}. Its experts hold 210 seats in the national and international standardization committees.

Tool Holder Selection

The process of machining materials to a net shape in an efficient and cost-effective way is an ongoing challenge for industries across the globe. The challenge is exacerbated when placed in the context of machining hard metals in a high labour cost country as seen within the EU.

Micro Boring Bar Tool Monitoring using Vibration

The concept of using sensors, outside of those integrated within the machine tool, to monitor tool condition is not novel and there are several methods which can be deployed, and some are outlined below.

Evaluation of machining calculation solutions

If some machining simulation software already exists, it should be tested extensively to determine whether it can be adapted for use in the industrial context. Machining is a complex process involving a large number of parameters. It therefore requires a lot of testing.

Digital Twin Applications in Manufacturing


Developments and advancements in digital technologies have challenged traditional manufacturing and become the basis of what is known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0.

Recycling carbide tools

The life of a carbide drill bit or cutting tool is measured in fractions of a millimetre, while the tool itself could be over a hundred millimetres long. There is good reason for this, but nevertheless and end-of-life tool retains significant value due to the materials and energy used to produce it.

Evolution of machining routings - watch note

This watch file presents the evolutions of ranges in the field of machining. The machine tools and peripheral technologies presented during the global industrie show are described by our Cetim speaker.

New solutions for intelligent and connected machine tools

This watch file offers a panorama of the latest technologies around intelligent and connected machine tools through a presentation of remarkable solutions, according to three themes: monitoring and optimisation of machining quality, monitoring of the production tool, but also monitoring and control of machining processes.

SECO TOOLS Modern Machining Days

The 2022 edition of the Modern Machining Days, at the Bourges site of Seco Tools France, featured advanced machining (turning and milling) demonstrations.

The basics of grinding

Grinding is a process of machining a flat, cylindrical or curved surface (profile grinding) where material is removed by abrasion. The original purpose of this operation was to improve the surface finish of highly hardened parts.

Watch file on the machining of metallic glasses

This study deals with developments in the field of metal lens machining since the 1980s, through scientific articles and patents.

The evolution of the number of patents and publications is illustrated as well as their countries of origin. The main actors are listed.

Dry machining - watch file

This study deals with developments in the field of dry machining since 1973, through scientific articles and patents.

The evolution of the number of patents and publications is illustrated as well as their countries of origin. The main actors are listed.

Cutting fluids - Good practices guide

Designed from various results of Cetim's generic and sectorial R&D, this guide is composed of a set of sheets which aim at providing good practices in the field of cutting fluids.

Autonomous integration of an external asset to an assembly line

Suppose the most critical asset of an assembly line is incapable to handle a temporary surge of demand or worse it is out of order. One solution to address such a scenario would be to have a fully automatic and versatile Plug and Produce (PnP) system, ready on standby that can be summoned to the assembly line.

Industry 5.0, what is new?

The initial industrial revolution dating back to the late 18th century was triggered by the release of the steam engine for industrial applications enabling the mechanization of steam power.

Improving an existing low-cost spring separator for industrial applications

Springs are typically delivered in bulk and feeding them into an assembly line is often a considerable challenge for factories engaged in assembly and installation activities. The reasons behind this difficulty are numerous since springs as a shape have some distinct features. For comprehension, some of the main features of the spring have been listed below:

AR meets Industry

When you hear AR, for sure you are thinking about the heavy, chunky, massively overpriced Hololens and how you tried to somehow see something with the small field of view. We don’t even have to talk about the hard time you had trying to tap on virtual objects in the air.

Part recognition and classification

Many manufacturing companies have identified a critical manual quality visual inspection check within their manufacturing workflow as a process that is repetitive, time consuming and open to errors. In the aerospace sector, for example, every part that is manufactured is machined in pairs, left and right.

Adaptive Machining

Adaptive machining is the adaptation of NC programs to accommodate part to part variation enabling more stable and consistent production of complex or variable geometries. Repeat component manufacture requires a repeatable machine and process to ensure the product is machined to the same standard every time.

Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Technologies in Additive Manufacturing

Robotic process automation (RPA) constitutes a set of software technologies that facilitates the building and deployment of software robots (bots) that mimic human actions when interacting with graphical user interfaces and other digital systems. Actions, such as opening a file, moving the mouse, filling in form fields, etc.

Implementation of Predictive Maintenance

In today's production systems, machine breakdowns are very severe. They not only generate unscheduled downtimes with related expenses and dissatisfied customers, but they also wreak havoc with staff scheduling (additional shifts) and warehousing (additional storage), as well as quality deterioration (scrapped components) and subsequent machine warm-up periods.

VR Training

How does it work?

By use of a head mounted display and a set of controllers, the user is placed in a virtual environment where they can practice, learn and improve their skills. The user will enter a scenario in which they have to perform a set of tasks to reach a goal. The scenario depends on the type of training.

Predictive Maintenance

End-to-end digitisation of physical assets within a value chain and their integration into a digital ecosystem is the focus of the fourth industrial revolution [1]. Ubiquitous sensors and microprocessors installed on machines, embedded systems and smart devices along with the increasing horizontal and vertical networking of value chains will result in unprecedently seen amounts of data.

Epicycloidal milling is up to 20% faster than trochoidal milling

Among the different working strategies for ‘high performance cutting’ (HPC), trochoidal milling is an efficient way of processing (difficult materials), and is one that also utilizes a longer cutting edge. In order to increase productivity even further, (i.e.

Low surface roughness and extremely high precision thanks to ELID grinding

Grinding through electrolytic in-process dressing (or ‘ELID’ for short) is an efficient technique for processing extremely hard and brittle materials such as ceramics (ZrO2, Si3N4), cermets and hardened steel. This grinding technique allows metal-bound grinding discs to be used, which are after all highly durable and difficult to adjust compared with discs with resins or glass.

3-2-1 Rule of Work Piece Clamping

Over the past years, manufacturing has made considerable progress. New machine tools, high-performance cutting tools, and modern manufacturing processes enable today's industries to make workpiece faster and better than ever before. Although work holding methods have also advanced considerably, the basic principles of clamping and locating are still the same.

Additive manufacturing vs conventional machining process for complex geometry parts

Conventional machining process like milling, drilling, rolling, forming and so on, are still the most common go-to manufacturing operations for medium to large volume production. Additive manufacturing (AM) has been disrupting the manufacturing environment in the past decade with new possibilities for customised small volume production. Optimised manufacturing, for example, is very difficult to achieve with conventional machining processes, whereas with the help of additive manufacturing, this is easy with relatively fewer tooling changes, and much less time involved with the manufacturing operation.

Collaborative Robotics

Industrial automation and robotics are nothing new within manufacturing. However, a new paradigm is emerging which blends manual and robotic activities. Where traditional automation solutions have been isolated from human workforce for safety reasons, new sensorised and aware robotic systems – or collaborative robotic systems (Cobotics) - are now becoming common place.

Milling with Ceramics

The use of ceramic cutting tools is on the rise, that news is less dramatic than it seems, because solid ceramic end mills and inserts are usually easier to use than carbide tools. Changing to using ceramic cutting tools doesn’t need really any special process changes. Contrary to what people might think about ceramic tooling.

AR Instructing

Hard turning with PCBN cutting material is defined as the process of single point cutting of part pieces that have hardness values over 45HRC. CBN is mainly used to turn parts in the region of 58-68HRC.

Sensory Tool Holder

A sensory tool holder is an inline tooling adapter that is capable of measuring three different dynamic responses within the tool – these being the bending moment, the tension and the torsion. With applications to both milling and turning operations, a sensory tool holder can continually collect data during a given operation and wirelessly transmits this data to a nearby laptop.

Turning with Wiper inserts.

The first wiper geometries were first introduced by Sandvik Coromant in 1997.The wiper technology for turning is based on a carefully developed series of radii that make up the cutting edge. On a conventional insert, the nose of the edge is just one radius. The wiper edge, however, is made up of a large, main radius complemented by several smaller radii.

Model based definition

Model Based Definition is a new strategy of product lifecycle management in which the CAD models (Computer aided design) change from simple models with only the geometric data to extensive information sources containing all product manufacturing information (Alemanni, Destefanis, & Vezzetti, 2010).

CAD, CAM and Verification

Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) software has been developed since the late 1950s and is an essential component of modern manufacturing. The term CAD covers a range of applications from 2D drafting packages to full 3D design packages with simulation and analysis tools.

Real-Time Production Scheduling in Job-Shops

Small and medium machining shops are often arranged as job-shops. In a job-shop the production is usually done in small batches, and the machines are arranged in functional units, or cells (milling cell, drilling cell, etc). Each part or product to manufacture needs to follow a sequence of operations (a route) to be performed in different machines.

Impact Hammer Test (TAP Testing)

Tap testing, also known as modal testing, is an experimental method that is used to excite the machine-tool system in order to extract its harmonic information such as natural frequencies, modal masses, modal damping ratios and mode shapes.  This is normally done in static conditions, using the impact hammer as the excitation mechanism, and an accelerometer as the sensor.  In theory, the tool t

Machining CFRP/GFRP Composite material.

The unrelenting passion of the aerospace industry to enhance the performance of commercial and military aircraft is constantly driving the development of improved high-performance structural materials. Composite materials are one such class of materials that play a significant role in current and future aerospace components. Composite materials are particularly attractive to aviation and aerospace applications because of their exceptional strength and stiffness-to-density ratios and superior physical properties. A composite material typically consists of relatively strong, stiff fibers in a tough resin matrix.

Why we can machine graphite with Diamond tools.

Graphite has specific properties that make machining a challenge. It’s strong, but also brittle, and is susceptible to chipping if not handled properly. Cutting Graphite (or carbon) is different from cutting Metals. Metal exerts plastic deformation when a tool edge cuts it producing a curl or chips.

Carbide inserts Wear Failure modes.

Tool wear describes the gradual failure of cutting tools due to regular operation. It is a term often associated with tools used for example on turning, milling, drilling and other types of machining operations where chips are made. We could also say “We started with a new cutting edge and at the beginning of the operation everything was working well.

Cryogenic machining, also for soft(er) materials

Cryogenic cooling during machining stands for machining at very low temperatures. This has advantages both for tools made of heat-resistant materials, where the heat can be high during machining, and for the machining of softer materials, which will flow more easily during machining.

XTEND Industrial Assistance system

Due to the expected increase in com­plexity in production, demographic change and the decreasing product life cycles, industrial companies have to face many challenges.

In-Process Inspection

In-process inspection is the process of investigating a produced feature within the same process flow, directly after the feature has been machined. In-process inspection is carried out on the same machine and in the same setup which is used for producing the feature. This process consists of a visual inspection to check the surface finish as well as a dimensional measurement of the feature.

Digitise your company - ERP all the way to the shop floor

Let’s cut to the chase: not every SME needs extra MES functionality to link the office and the shop floor, provided that the available ERP modules and possibilities are fully utilised. Because ERP makers also want to claim a part of the MES market, many traditionally have a shop floor module at their disposal.

What is a Digital Twin?

The first idea of Twin appeared at NASA with its Apollo program. At that time, it was a real copy of the module where it was possible to reproduce the problems encountered in space by the module and find a way to solve them from the earth. Grieves introduced the transformation into a Digital Twin in 2003 as mentioned in “Digital Twin: Manufacturing Excellence through Virtual Factory Replication”. NASA and the US Air Force then started to apply the Digital Twin in the aeronautic domain.

Connected machines for Industry 4.0, ready now or in the future?

Industry 4.0 is built around the exchange of information between machines and higher-level systems. Connected machines and far-reaching digitisation ensure that manufacturing companies can make their production lines more flexible, secure and autonomous. For machine builders, connected machines offer the potential to develop digitally supported services.

Feature Recognition techsheet

The change in the market forces machining companies to update product design, complexity, quality, durability and delivery times. This is made possible by the development of computer technology. During the development of a 3D model in CAD (Computer Aided Design), data can be adjusted quickly.

Environmental impact of cryogenic machining

Sometimes the question arises to what extent cryogenic cooling is environmentally-friendly, as the gases used are a consumable, unlike other refrigerants that can be reused. Cryogenic processing does have interesting environmental advantages.

Cryogenic cooling: an overview

Almost 10 years after the introduction of cryogenic machining, a lot of research has been conducted on this technology, its application and pros and cons. However, despite the positive results, the step to the industry does not seem to be so obvious.

Choose the right endmill to optimise your milling process

Solid carbide endmills are the most commonly used tools in almost every machine shop. Process engineers are always concerned with productivity gains by reducing the tooling cost, machining time and bring down the cost per part to increase the margins. The selection of the machining conditions either rely on the experience of the operator or the recommendations from the tool manufacturer.


POLCA stands for Paired-cell Overlap Loops of Cards with Authorization. POLCA is a production steering and control system for high mix/low volume and custom made products environments aimed at keeping the lead time at the shop floor short.

What a mobile cobot can do in production

Our consortium partner, Sirris, was given the opportunity to make temporary use of a KMR iiwa with the aim to extensively test and explore the potential of a mobile cobot.

Creating functionalities with laser texturing

Femtosecond lasers are ultra-fast pulsed lasers, which are used to remove material. The material is not heated, but immediately turns into a plasma. In addition, the technology is extremely suited for the very precise application of functionalities via textures.

Rough milling with the Vortex method reduces machining time

With high-speed rough milling, correct programming can prevent exceeding the limit value of the radial cutting width and breaking the tool. In curves and transitions, however, the cutting width can temporarily increase, while this is not what is needed.

Machining electrically conductive ceramics with spark erosion (EDM)

Because of their extreme hardness, ceramic materials and their composites are very popular for mechanical applications that are susceptible to wear and tear due to heavy loads. The other side of the coin is that conventional techniques do not usually suffice to work these materials. Some are even impossible to grind, because oxides deposit on the grinding wheel.

Method to transfer colour images to metal with a laser

Three photonic laser techniques to transfer colour images with high resolution to metal surfaces: oxidation of metal and interferences, formation of nanoparticles and plasmon resonance, structuring of a periodic circuit and diffraction of light.

Robot significantly reduces production time of large moulds

The arrival of machine hammer peening opens the way to fast finishing of large milled injection and deep drawing moulds. Instead of manual polishing, an industrial robot does the work in a shorter time. This process also offers a number of other advantages.